, a natural bee product that gathers bees from plant stems, leaves and buds. It has strong antibacterial and antioxidant effects. It is used to kill germs in the hive and to protect the bee colony.
The main function of propolis for bees is to provide and maintain the antiseptic environment in the hive. Honeybees use propolis to protect larvae and themselves against microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi).
Propolis is considered as a disinfectant source in the hive. Due to its high content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, it has a high antioxidant effect.
Over 300 compounds have been discovered in propolis and it contains polyphenols, terpenoids, amino acids, volatile organic acids, ketones, coumarin, Quinone, vitamins and minerals. The composition of propolis varies depending on the type of plant its extracted from, the way it is collected and used by the bee, production method used by the beekeeper and methods used in the process for making it suitable for human consumption. Propolis can’t be consumed in its original form in the hive. For it to be suitable for human consumption and for our body to benefit from this substance, it has to be processed. These processing methods are extremely important. Inappropriate processing methods may result in propolis, which is otherwise a very nutritious substance, to loose all its nutritious qualities and activity. Thus, propolis should be processed by experts using appropriate infrastructure, know-how and technical equipment before being sold for human consumption.